The Big Bang is possible

Contented young people in rural communities, green development and a connection to the digital world – this future scenario is within reach even in Africa, says agronomist Professor Joachim von Braun. For the past three decades, he has been researching areas where policy-makers have opportunities to leverage prosperity on the African continent.

Ich bin ein Alternativtext

Joachim von Braun

Joachim von Braun

Prof Dr Joachim studied agricultural sciences and currently heads the Center’s Department for Economic and Technological Change. He became Vice-President of the German NGO Welthungerhilfe in 2012.

 

Center for Development Research of the University of Bonn

Brot für die Welt

Are new jobs being created in rural or urban settings in Africa?

 

von Braun: In the main, new jobs are emerging in rural areas – but alongside, not in agriculture: in processing factories that preserve and pack vegetables, produce frozen peas and beans and turn mangos into juice. In other words, they are being created downstream in the value chain, closer to the consumer. A lot of this is happening on a fairly small scale. I know a number of small firms which export mango syrup from three-hectare farms in Kenya and India to England. No new jobs are likely to be created in arable farming; in fact, the number of jobs in this sector will probably decrease. In that sense, Africa will mirror what happened in Europe in the past as farmers improve their productivity through the use of technology, mechanisation and better livestock husbandry.

 

In most African countries, the farms are very small – and yet the rural areas seem to be stimulating growth in the cities. Can you explain?

 

Well, let’s think about Germany and where the smallest farms existed in the past and still exist today: in the south-west. Despite that, Baden-Württemberg is now the region with the highest patent density in Germany and the most dynamic SME sector. That’s no coincidence: smallholder farmers have entrepreneurship built into their DNA. In south-western Germany, this has spawned SMEs that now operate in the world market, creating thousands of jobs. And these are jobs for skilled workers – jobs that require a considerable amount of training. Over the long term, this opportunity exists in countless African regions as well.

 

It sounds like a vision for the distant future. Is any structural change taking place in Africa?

 

Economic transformation is happening in Africa, just as it happened in Europe. The agricultural share of GDP is shrinking while industry’s share is expanding, and the service sector is growing even more. The question is simply how hard or soft this landing will be. In other words, to what extent will there be unemployment and a rural-urban exodus, with associated conflicts in cities and rural communities?

Ich bin ein Alternativtext
Teilnehmerinnen des Workshops "Rural Future Lab".

 

How can policy-makers shape this process?

 

In many cases, Africa’s countries have developed clear policies and plans for the future. Some of them present a convincing case and should be given funding and development policy support. External planning has very little effect. Broadly speaking, policy-makers should do much more to maintain processing and services in rural regions and prevent the loss of jobs to unproductive service industries in the cities, where young men and women end up sitting in the street selling gum, sim cards and other low-value items. So the first step for policy-makers is to ensure that rural areas have the requisite infrastructure for development – roads, electricity, phone lines, health care. And secondly, partners are needed to leverage investment, and that means promoting the banking sector, credit unions and cooperatives. And the third key factor is technology – for example, to pack and sort farm products, identify gaps in the market, develop business plans and so forth. Development cooperation can make substantial contributions in all these areas.

 

What type of strategy needs to be in place for meaningful expansion of infrastructure?

 

There’s a right way and a wrong way. Our research shows that synergies are greatest where infrastructural expansion is undertaken simultaneously, not consecutively – in other words, what we don’t want is a linear process with roads today, power lines tomorrow and phone connections or fibre optic broadband – which is already being rolled out in Africa – bringing up the rear. Clustering investment has the potential to create a big bang in rural regions. At present, however, investors are still adopting a primarily sectoral approach, which isn’t the right way to go. Some of them are focused on railways while others are prioritising roads, and so on. They need to get round the table with the countries that are developing these plans and coordinate their activities. What’s more, when the word ‘infrastructure’ is mentioned, people tend to think of major roads, not smaller but useful pathways. Our research shows that the economic benefits of path networks far outweigh those achieved with larger transport projects.

 

The big bang theory may be a risky option, though, if all the investment goes to the President’s home region and other areas are left out of the loop.

 

Infrastructure projects are always highly political. In Africa, the main problem is not that corrupt leaders are expanding the infrastructure so it reaches their weekend retreats. The really bad investment decisions tend to be made because so many of these infrastructure projects focus on oil, gas and mining, bypassing development opportunities in rural regions. Short-term resource extraction instead of long-term development is the real problem. So it’s important to support governments by promoting sustainable infrastructure planning.

 

Are international donors partly to blame, as well as national governments, for this wrong development pathway?

 

Definitely. Take South Sudan: the agronomist and freedom fighter John Garang, who died in an accident, believed that his most important legacy was a plan to build roads that led not to the oil and gas deposits but to communities with genuine agricultural development potential. Political developments took a different trajectory. South Sudan is currently in the grip of a resource conflict, which indicates that development-oriented rural infrastructure has been forgotten.

 

Should we be worried about China’s influence?

 

China is depicted as the bad guy, but that’s unjustified, especially where land grabbing is concerned. European investors are probably responsible for more land grabbing than China. In any case, Chinese investment in Africa is now much more development-focused than it was in the past; the construction of railway lines in East Africa is a case in point. I wish the Western donor community had committed to this type of investment a long time ago.

 

Why the omission – and why are things happening now?

 

Infrastructural investment had fallen out of favour. Instead, it was all about urban development. In fact, this was overemphasised in the 1990s, with the result that rural regions and agriculture were left behind. As a further consequence, good infrastructure projects were also neglected. We now need to rethink and reboot our investment in agriculture and rural development. That’s the type of package that will create jobs where young people need them.

 

You mention financing as the second factor of relevance to restructuring. But banks are private sector bodies – so what can policy-makers do?

 

Smallholder farmers need access to credit. Governments can provide cover against credit risks. After all, agriculture is a risky business, especially with climate change having the potential to cause droughts across entire regions, as is happening right now in East Africa. Banks shy away from this risk. A government-sponsored drought insurance scheme can help farmers at high-risk sites gain access to markets. Often, insuring just 10% of the credit sum is sufficient. Organisations such as the World Bank, the African Development Bank and KfW have a key role to play in this context, especially in the least developed countries.

 

For how much longer?

 

In the medium term, we will continue to need some government involvement, as well as engagement by the international institutions. But even in Africa, the banking sector is undergoing radical change, mainly as a result of digitalisation. Innovations such as crowdfunding and crowdfinancing are emerging and are an attractive prospect for small creative companies. In the long term, local banks will be able to take over the task of providing credit facilities to businesses. But with this type of development, it’s impossible to make firm predictions about timeframes.

 

You mentioned technology as the third important driver. Can you give an example?

 

Take the issue of water and sanitation. Sustainable rural development depends on access to clean water. There are still many places where people have to take themselves off into the bush or use unhygienic latrines when they need to go to the toilet. This pollutes local water resources and spreads disease – and it’s also very wasteful, because you can apply smart thinking to human waste. For example, you can use it as a substrate to fatten fly larvae or worms, which not only breaks down the faecal matter but also provides a supply of insects for use as chicken feed. And that raises high-tech questions: which are the most suitable larvae or worms? Which are most digestible, and should they be dried or fresh?

 

What’s the answer?

 

In Nairobi, there is an entire institute – the International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology (icipe) – dedicated to researching these species of insect. If you visit its website (www.icipe.org), you can learn about all sorts of fascinating creatures that you have probably never heard of before and probably don’t want to find out about now!

 

Give us a positive scenario for the future: what will rural Africa look like in 30 years’ time?

 

Famines, such as the present crisis in East Africa, which was caused by a combination of drought and armed conflict, will be a thing of the past. Africa’s rural areas will have caught up with the rest of the world, not just the nearest town or city. The countryside won’t look quite as rural as it does today; instead, it will consist of settlements that are hubs of economic activity offering quality of life, digitally connected, with clean air and water – and a thriving farming and forestry sector. By contrast, the cities will be greener and much more rural in appearance. They, too, will harness the potential of natural resources. Development opportunities will be used to the maximum extent, because education will extend into rural areas and reach children, teenagers and also adults who are keen to learn. This will be possible at affordable prices via digital platforms. In 30 years’ time, the urban-rural divide will be much more fluid. All the African countries will have lifted themselves out of poverty and into the group of middle-income countries.

Go back

Similar articles

"We must mobilise all available resources"

By Ismahane Elouafi (ICBA)

Freshwater deficits are affecting more and more people throughout the world. In order to counter this, our global food system will have to change, our author maintains. A case for more research on alternative crops and smart water solutions.

Read more

Turning many into one: CGIAR network restructures

By Jan Rübel

International agricultural research is responding to new challenges: Their advisory group is undergoing a fundamental reform process and unites knowledge, partnerships and physical assets into OneCGIAR.

Read more

Video: 4 Questions to Claudia Makdristo

By Seedstars

Startups are booming in African agriculture. What are the current trend and challenges – and can other regions benefit from innovative approaches? A Video-Interview with Claudia Makadristo, Regional Manager of Seedstars  

Read more

"Pandemic increases violence against women"

Interview with Léa Rouanet

African countries still face huge gender gaps in terms of access to work and capital. What are the consequences of Corona for women in Africa? Jan Rübel interviewed Léa Rouanet on lockdowns and gender-based violence. The economist works at the Africa Gender Innovation Lab of the World Bank.

Read more

ONE WORLD no hunger - Meet the people driving rural transformation

A program by the partners of the special initiative One World no Hunger

The future is rural. On September 24, meet leaders and visionaries from Africa and South Asia who will enter into dialogue with european key actors.

Join uns here to meet the people.

Read more

JOERG BOETHLING / GIZ

Continent in an uptrend

By Dr. Agnes Kalibata

Partnering for Africa’s Century: Innovation and Leadership as Drivers of Growth and Productivity in Rural Areas

Read more

KLAUS WOHLMANN / GIZ

’Farmers are smart’

By Jan Rübel

From the lab to the masses: Maria Andrade bred varieties of biofortified sweet potatoes which are now widely used all over the continent. She sets her hope on the transformation of African agriculture.

Read more

Karel Prinsloo/Arete/Rockefeller Foundation/AGRA

'Nutrition is a human right'

Joe DeVries is a breeder – and Vice President of AGRA. What are the chances and risks of a ’green revolution‘ in Africa? A discourse between Jan Rübel and him about productivity, needs, and paternalism.

Read more

(c) Privat

How much private investment is the agricultural sector able to bear?

By Pedro Morazán

Small farmers in developing countries must modernise their farming methods, but poorly understood reforms could exacerbate poverty instead of alleviating it.

Read more

Uli Reinhardt/Zeitenspiegel

No dirty dealing

Von Marlis Lindecke

Shit Business is Serious Business: A successful cooperation between research and the private sector.

Read more

(c) Kate Holt / Africa Practice

Leveraging investment impacts

By Heike Baumüller, Christine Husmann, Julia Machovsky-Smid, Oliver Kirui, Justice Tambo

Any initiative whose aim is to reduce poverty in Africa should focus first on agriculture. But what kind of investment has the greatest impact? The use of scientific criteria provides some answers.

Read more

A new attempt at Africa's industrialization?

By Helmut Asche

Afrika is about ready. There are promising approaches for a sustainable industrialization. However, the path poses challenges to the continent.

Read more

5 Questions for Gunther Beger (BMZ): What must be done?

Interview with Gunther Beger (BMZ)

How much will it cost to sustainably end world hunger by 2030? This question was posed by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) that commissioned two research teams with finding an answer. The results of the studies will be presented on October 13 in the run-up to World Food Day.

Read more

'It has never been more possible'

Interview with Carin Smaller (Ceres2030)

Over a period of two years, the Ceres2030 team spent researching answers to the questions of how much it will how much it will cost to realize SDG 2 and where that money should be spent most effectively. IISD Senior Advisor and Ceres2030 Co-director Carin Smaller about small farmers, machine learning and women empowerment.

Read more

“We have to prepare for the unexpected”

Interview with Dr Maria Flachsbarth (BMZ)

In August, Germany’s development ministry set up a division concentrating on One Health topics. Parliamentary State Secretary Maria Flachsbarth on knowledge gaps at the human-animal-environmental interface, the link between One Health and food security, and lessons learnt from previous pandemics.

Read more

Is the international community still on track in the fight against hunger?

Interview with Miriam Wiemers (Welthungerhilfe)

The Global Hunger Index (GHI) 2020 shows that the world is not on track to meet the international goal of “zero hunger by 2030”. If we continue at our current speed, around 37 countries will not even have reached a low hunger level by 2030.

Read more

"Agricultural research unties the Gordian knot"

Interview with World Bank Vice President Voegele

The CGIAR agricultural research organization is systematically repositioning itself. We spoke with Juergen Voegele, Vice President for Sustainable Development at the World Bank, about progress to date - and discuss what needs to be done collectively to stop global hunger in ten years.

Read more

5 Questions for Jann Lay: What is Corona doing to the economy?

Interview with Jann Lay (GIGA)

The Corona pandemic is hitting economies around the world very hard - but developments in African countries are quite diverse. There are different speeds, resiliences and vulnerabilities. What are the reasons for this? Apl. Prof. Jann Lay of the GIGA Institute provides answers.

Read more

GFFA 2021 focussed on climate and COVID-19

A report by David Sahay (Zeitenspiegel)

110 speakers from 120 countries met virtually at the Global Forum for Food and Agriculture (GFFA) to discuss the challenges to global food supply. They asked the question: How can food systems support the health of people and the planet?

Read more

Small-scale farmers’ responses to COVID-19 related restrictions

Study by SLE

The lockdown due to COVID-19 hit the economy hard - including agriculture in particular with its supply chains and sales markets. What creative coping strategies have those affected found? The Seminar for Rural Development has begun a research study on th

Read more

More than just a seat at the table

By Welthungerhilfe

Africa is home to the world’s youngest and fastest growing population. For many young people, agriculture could offer a job perspective. But to improve the living conditions and job prospects of young people in rural areas, political reforms and investments are desperately needed, as these people will be at the centre of agriculture and agricultural development in the future.

Read more

The human finca

Interview with Marvin Antonio Garcia Otero

In Eastern El Salvador, campesinos are cultivating a self-image to encourage rural youth to remain in rural areas. With help from Caritas, they have adjusted the cultivation methods to their soils and traditions - Marvin Antonio Garcia Otero,the deputy director of Caritas of the Diocese of San Miguel believes this is the best way to prevent rural exodus and criminality.

Read more

“Corona exposes the weaknesses of our nutritional systems"

Interview with Arif Husain (WFP)

The United Nations plan a Food Systems Summit - and now the Corona-Virus is dictating the agenda. The Chief Economist of the UN World Food Programme takes stock of the current situation: a conversation with Jan Rübel about pandemics, about the chromosomes of development - and about the conflicts that inhibit them.

Read more

Do we have to dare a new food system?

By Dr. Felix zu Löwenstein (BÖLW)

Lack of seasonal workers and virus explosion in slaughterhouses, rising vegetable prices, climate crisis – all this demonstrates: Our food system is highly productive and (at least for the rich inhabitants of planet earth) guarantees an unprecedented rich and steady food supply - but it is not resilient.

Read more

(c) Foto Privat

Story: In Blocked Chains We Trust

By Solomon King Benge

It is 2080. We are on a farm somewhere in Africa. Everything is digital. The blockchain is an omnipotent point of reference, and the farm is flourishing. But then, everything goes wrong. A dystopian short story, written exclusively for SEWOH.

Read more

(c) Christoph Pueschner/Zeitenspiegel

From start to finish: a vision of interconnectivity

By Tanja Reith

At the moment, the agricultural industries of African countries exist in relative isolation. Imagine peasant farmers digitally connected to the value chains of the global food industry. How could this happen? A guidebook.

Read more

Answers from the youth: "Leave or stay? That depends on it!"

GIZ study; conducted by Geopoll

Does Africa's youth want to live in the city or in the country? Which career path seems particularly attractive? And how optimistic are the young people about the future? Young adults from rural areas answered these questions by SMS.

Read more

"Agriculture can become a job engine"

Interview with Reiner Klingholz

How can agriculture modernise Africa? And does the road to the cities really lead out of poverty? Dr. Reiner Klingholz from the Berlin Institute for Population and Development in conversation with Jan Rübel .

Read more

The Life of Their Dreams - What Children Want

By Dreyer Foundation

Later on you want to become a farmer yourself, or would you prefer to take up another profession? Two young people from Burkina-Faso talked to representatives of the Dreyer Foundation about their parents' farms, the profession of farmer and their own plans for the future.

Read more

An opportunity for the continent

By the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Africa’s population is young and ready to take its destiny into its own hands. Agriculture offers amazing opportunities in this regard. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation wants to support the next generation in this way.

Read more

An investment in Africa's future

By Essa Chanie Mussa

Rural youth need viable livelihood opportunities to escape out of poverty and realize their aspirations. How could they be helped to fully unleash their potential? This is an aloud call that needs novel strategies among governments, policy makers, and international development partners and donors.

Read more

Frank Schultze / Agentur_ZS

Video: Visions in agriculture

By Frank Schultze and Jan Rübel

At the beginning of December 2018, AGRA's board of directors met in Berlin. The "Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa" ​​panel discussed the next steps in their policy of modernizing agriculture. How to go on in the next ten years? One question - many answers from experts.

Read more

"Extreme is the new normal"

By Alexander Müller, and Jes Weigelt

As the climate changes, the population of Africa is growing and fertile land and jobs are becoming scarcer. New ways are currently leading to urbanisation of agriculture and a new mid-sized sector in the countryside

Read more

Uli Reinhardt/Zeitenspiegel

Enough of being poor

By Marcellin Boguy

In western Africa a new middle class is emerging. Their consumer behaviour is determining the demand for products – home-produced and imported goods, on the internet or at the village market. The people of Ivory Coast in particular are looking to the future with optimism.

Read more

(c) Privat

Small Farms, big money

By Agnes Kalibata

Africas economy can only grow sustainably, if also small-scale agriculture is seen as opportunity.

Read more

New campaign for women: "Poverty is sexist"

Interview with Stephan Exo-Kreischer

This is a benchmark for everybody: More rights for women are a very influencing solution in the struggle against extreme poverty and hunger worldwide, says Stephan Exo-Kreischer, Director of ONE Germany. The organisation specialises in political campaigning as a lever for sustainable change.

Read more

Freed from trade? Towards a fairer EU Trade Agenda

By Dr. Jan Orbie

‘Fair’ and ‘sustainable’ are key words in Germany’s EU Council Presidency. At the same time, Germany pursues ‘modernization’ of the WTO and ‘rapid progress’ on free trade agreements. Are these goals really compatible? Can we be concerned about fairness and sustainability while continuing with ‘business as usual’?

Read more

Global responsibility: Tackling hunger is the only way forward

By Lisa Hücking (WHH)

Chancellor Merkel has begun an ambitious European political programme: Striving for compromise in budget negotiations, an orderly Brexit as well as an appropriate response to the corona crisis. Unfortunately, one of her positions that she previously held is nowhere to be found: Africa's prosperity is in the interest of Europe. 

Read more

Reference values: A building block on the road to social equality

Article by Friederieke Martin (GIZ)

A quick and cost-effective method calculates living wages and incomes for many different countries. The GIZ together with Fairtrade International and Richard and Martha Anker have developed a tool that companies can use to easily analyse income and wage gaps.

Read more

Quinoa could have a huge potential in Central Asia, where the Aral Sea Basin has been especially hard-hit by salinisation.

Supermarket Scorecard on Human Rights

By Dr. Franziska Humbert (Oxfam)

Oxfam’s supermarket scorecard, which is in its third year, shows one thing in particular - it works! Supermarkets can change their business policies and focus more on the rights of those people around the world who plant and harvest food. However, this does not happen without pressure. 

Read more

Good health is impossible without healthy food

By Heino von Meyer

Corona makes it even more difficult to achieve a world without hunger by 2030. So that this perspective does not get out of sight, Germany must play a stronger role internationally - a summary of the Strategic Advisory Group of SEWOH.

Read more

© GIZ

Ideas on the ground: Local solutions for global challenges

Interview with Sebastian Lesch (BMZ)

A world without hunger and with sufficient healthy food as well as climate-friendly agriculture can only be achieved if ideas are transformed into innovations and ultimately also applied - a conversation with BMZ Head of Division Sebastian Lesch on the Innovation Challenge programme of the new Agricultural Innovation Fund.

Read more

Ms Rudloff, what are the benefits of a supply chain law?

By Jan Rübel

The Federal Government is fine-tuning a law that would require companies to ensure human rights – a supply chain law. What are the consequences for the agricultural sector? Dr Bettina Rudloff from the German Institute for International and Security Affairs (SWP) discusses linking policy fields with added value.

Read more

(c) Michael Bruentrup/DIE

News from the starting block: Changeover

By Michael Brüntrup

The region of Sub-Saharan Africa is on the decisive verge of a great development boost in farming: it could skip entire generations of technological development. But how?  About possible roles and potentials of digital services.

Read more

Africa's face of agriculture is female

By Beatrice Gakuba

Africa has a huge opportunity to make agriculture its economic driver. However, the potential for this is far from being made exhaustive use of, one reason being that women face considerable difficulties in their economic activities. The organisation AWAN Afrika seeks to change this state of affairs.

Read more

Hier steht eine Bildbeschreibung

Statement from GAFSP Co-Chairs: GAFSP and COVID-19 Pandemic

By GAFSP

COVID-19 has unprecedented effects on the world. As always, the most vulnerable are the hardest hit, both at home and - especially - abroad. A joint appeal by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Development and Cooperation (BMZ) and the Department for International Development (DFID).

Read more

Uli Reinhardt/Zeitenspiegel

Bitter fruit

By Frank Brunner

Why aren’t bars of chocolate made where cocoa is grown? Author Frank Brunner analyses the industry’s fragile value chain from the plantation to the supermarket

Read more

(c) Christoph Püschner

The price isn’t everything

By Bettina Rühl

In Togo’s capital, Lomé, home-grown rice costs almost twice as much as the imported product from Thailand. Yet there are good reasons for preferring the local product

Read more

(c) Christoph Püschner/Zeitenspiegel

Slaves do not produce quality

By Tilman Wörtz

Every child in Germany knows Ritter Sport – but most of the children harvesting cocoa on western African plantations have never even eaten chocolate. Can a chocolate manufacturer change the world? Conversation with Alfred Ritter about the power and powerlessness of a businessman.

Read more

No rainforest for our consumption

By Jenny Walther-Thoß

In the tropics rainforests are still being felled for the production of palm oil, meat and furniture. It is high time to act. Proposals are on the table.

Read more

(c) Simon Veith

A fresh opportunity

Interview with Lutz Hartmann

By leasing a three hundred hectare fruit plantation in Ethiopia, Lutz Hartmann has realised a long-cherished dream: to run his own business in Africa. Now he has a personal interest in the issue of Africa’s development.

Read more

Small fish with a big potential

By Paul van Zwieten

African inland fisheries are increasingly reliant on the capture of small fish species that are sundried and traded over long distances. They make an important contribution in alleviating “hidden hunger”: consumed whole, small fish are an important source of micronutrients. Only that, unfortunately, politicians haven’t yet realised this.

Read more

Controversy: Do supply chains need liability rules?

Discussion about the potential supply chain law

The German government is struggling to pass a supply chain law. It is intended to address violations of human rights, social and environmental standards. What would the consequences be for business? A double interview with Veselina Vasileva from GEPA and economics professor Andreas Freytag.

Read more

"Soy can be made into more than just flour"

A report by Johanna Steinkühler (GIZ)

The soybean is a natural crop that can be used to make a lot of food. So, Tata Bi started a small processing business first on her own, then with a few other women, which provides the women with an additional source of income year-round besides selling the soybeans.

Read more

Africa's rapid economic transformation

By T. S. Jayne, A. Adelaja and R. Mkandawire

Thirty years ago, Africa was synonymous with war, famine and poverty. That narrative is clearly outdated. African living standards are rising remarkably fast. Our authors are convinced that improving education and entrepreneurship will ensure irreversible progress in the region even as it confronts COVID-19.

Read more

"Without peace, there will be no development"

Interview with Karina Mroß 

What contribution does development cooperation make to conflict prevention? What can it do for sustainable peace? Political scientist Karina Mroß talks to Raphael Thelen about post-conflict societies and their chances for peaceful development.

Read more

Frank Schultze / Agentur_ZS

The communicator

By Jan Rübel

What do electrical engineering, telecommunications and agriculture have in common? They arouse the passion of Strive Masiyiwa: Thirty years ago, he started an electrical installation company with $75, later riding the telecommunications wave as a pioneer. Today he is committed to transforming African agriculture.

 

Read more

MarkIrungu /AGRA

Spiritual mortar for the young generation

By Jan Rübel

Fred Swaniker is working building a new era of leaders. And what about agriculture? ‘It needs to be more sexy!’

Read more